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This is a mini course in Criminology from an American perspective. It presents an encapsulated view of traditional hypotheses about the causes of crime and historical figures associated with crime theory. Professor Botta guides his readers from the dawn of theoretical roots of societal crime mythology to the doorstep of the science of Criminology in America in the modern age. The author's purpose is to familiarize students with contemporary criminological theories and their sociological impact on twenty-first century American life. This text is a concise treatment of the multidisciplinary approaches to Criminology practiced in the U.S.A. today through a melding of philosophical solutions to real-life sociological problems.

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Open Publishing, 2019.

ISBN: 978-03594-9598-6









The typical client hiring a writing tutor in 2019 is concerned with the general improvement of writing skills. Tutoring is most often associated with academic performances and clients are naturally focused on a magic formula for getting better grades in school. Unfortunately, there is no magic pill.

Writing tutors are well-intentioned and expensive. They offer critiques aimed at improving writing skills and advise struggling students on better ways to complete writing assignments and research papers. Tutors enjoy the task of developing strategies for students as aids to skill development. Such accomplishments are wonderful goals. That being said, why then does it take so long to accomplish those achievements? The answer might be quite simple. Students, metaphorically speaking, are asking for the time, but are being taught how to make a clock.


Americans spend approximately ten years in classrooms before their sophomore year in high school. During that time, they are drilled on the rules of grammar, syntax, punctuation, writing styles, etc. To many of them, the lessons are more complicated than Quantum Physics. There are so many rules for proper apostrophe and comma usage, modifying words, and parallel structure that students become lost in the technical side of written communication. Many fail to communicate at all. By sophomore year, millions of American students have terrible basic writing skills.


In walks the writing tutor offering sage advice. In a perfect world, the solution is at hand. Unfortunately, we do not live in a perfect world. When the tutor's plan is nothing more than teaching the same complicated grammar lessons the struggling student failed to grasp over ten years, it is no surprise that the process often fails.


Thankfully, there is hope. I liken the challenge to the game of golf for the average weekend player. Learn how to use a few clubs very well instead of taking a year to learn the perfect grip. Learn to eliminate the most frequent writing errors with simple concepts, rather than attempting to learn ten years worth of writing rules using a memorization method. When high school and college students constantly violate two basic rules governing commas, there is no need to memorize fifteen complicated principles until the basics are second-nature. In one month, students can drastically improve their writing skills using a simple, affordable method.


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Excerpt from Perspectives of an Ordinary Man


A Modern Political Fairy Tale


Once upon a time, there lived a young cheetah on the plains of the far off Kingdom of Animalia. The little creature had been raised by his mom, who loved and protected him as best she could in lion country.

There had been a time when mom could sleep half the day because the larger wildebeests had no interest in daily cheetah life, and there were plenty of antelope and Thomson’s gazelles to sustain the family. Even the powerful and aggressive Cape Buffalo, equal in strength to the rhinoceros, crocodile, and elephant chose not to interfere with the feline world. Of course, it was lion country, always a danger, and occasionally a cheetah might run afoul of a leopard having a bad day; but that is life. The young cheetah learned that lesson from his mom, along with the ability to use some of his special skills such as blinding speed and semi-retractable claws.

As the cheetah grew, his world began to change. Hyenas and vultures became discontented. They looked at the young cheetah with eyes filled with envy and hearts green with jealousy. The hyenas were more powerful, but lacked the cheetah’s speed. They didn’t care about their God-given, bone-crushing, sabre-like teeth, or their ability to efficiently hunt in packs. They spent their days whining because they could not climb trees or outrun lions. The vultures envied the cheetah’s strength and stealth, and seemed unaware of their own ability to fly, which most birds called freedom.


The young cheetah, no longer so little, now on his own since his mom’s demise, found himself threatened on all sides. Lion and leopard dangers remained ever present, but a new threat hit the plains in a form that defied Nature. Rather than using their enormous talents to sustain their own families, the hyenas and vultures hung around the rivers and grasslands waiting for the young cheetah to hunt.


And hunt he did. He met a lady friend, started a family of his own, and together they stalked their prey for many hours to support the little ones with whom they had been blessed. Yet, more than half their yield seemed to be snatched by the hyenas and vultures too lackadaisical to fend for themselves, too covetous to use their own skills, and too lethargic to develop new talents for self-sustenance.


And so life as the young cheetah had known it disappeared. His own cubs never experienced life on the plains of plenty, with only the Natural perils of lions and leopards to draw concern. In time, when the cheetah and his mate completed their lives, their young cubs weakly attempted to continue the cycle of life, without the knowledge and guidance of those who walked the plains before them. The Cape Buffalo was still too strong for assaults by the hyenas and vultures, but their turn would come. After all, in the mindset of the scavengers, there existed certain unfairness among species. They figured the Cape Buffalo easily worked his swamp land for food, grazing all day, and the lions had their zebras to fill their bellies. Why should vultures and hyenas be resigned to a life of toil? The giant buffalo and lion prides could learn to consume less and share the fruits of their labors.


The cheetahs, along with all the beasts of burden, lived happily ever after – for a while. Then the starving animal workers went the way of all things, as there was little left to share. And the marauding vultures and hyenas, with nothing to scavenge, turned on each other.

© 2018 by JJ Botta